Publications - Publications en-us PURE Extension (Web Department) 30 <![CDATA[Effect of lameness on feeding behavior of zero grazed Jersey dairy cows]]> Gündel, S., Looft, C., Foldager, L., Thomsen, P. T. Research Thu, 01 Sep 2022 15:59:12 +0200 ed969cd1-b3c4-4ec6-8491-73b6098cafc3 <![CDATA[Correction to]]> Hammershoj, M., Kristiansen, G. H., Steenfeldt, S. The authors would like to make the following correction to the published paper [1]. Text Correction There was an error in the original publication. After publishing the results, a mistake in the chick delivery for genotype A, was discovered. This means that fewer chickens than expected were available for genotype A, resulting in only two replicate units for genotype A instead of three replicates that was planned. The results have been corrected by calculating the LS-Means of all data by two replicate units of genotype A, and by three replicate units of genotypes B, C and D, respectively. A correction has been made to Abstract, lines 7–11: Two dual-purpose genotypes with divergent characteristics were evaluated: genotype A represented an experimental crossbreed based on a broiler type male and an egg layer female, and genotype C was a crossbreed of a layer type. These were compared to a rustic genotype B and a control genotype D, which was an egg layer. Eggs were collected six times during the period of 21–54 weeks of hen age, i.e., a total of 990 shell eggs were analyzed. A correction has been made to Section 2.1. Materials, first paragraph, lines 1–7: Eggs were produced from four different genotypes in the study, including two dualpurpose genotypes (A, C), a rustic breed (B) and a commercial egg layer (D). The dualpurpose genotypes with divergent characteristics, and a rustic genotype were selected by the French Poultry and Aquaculture Breeders Technical Center (SYSAAF) in cooperation with two breeding companies. Genotype A represented an experimental cross breed based on a broiler type male and an egg layer female laying brown-shelled eggs, where genotype C was a cross breed of a layer type laying brown-shelled eggs. Genotype B represented a genotype that has not been selected for any specific traits and included to compare with the dual-purpose genotypes orientated more on meat or eggs production. Finally, genotype D was a control egg layer breed laying white-shelled eggs (purchased at a local pullet breeder). However, due to a mistake in the chick delivery for genotype A, fewer chickens than expected were available for genotype A, which resulted in only two replicate units for genotype A instead of three replicates that was planned. For genotype B, C and D, there were three replicate units. A correction has been made to Section 2.1. Materials, fourth paragraph, lines 1–3: Six times, at the hen ages of 21, 25, 30, 38, 46, and 54 week, 15 eggs were collected from each of the 11 outdoor units with mobile houses, representing the four genotypes in two (A) and three replicates (B, C and D), i.e., a total of 990 shell eggs were individually analyzed.

Research Tue, 01 Feb 2022 15:59:12 +0100 0c800724-2e07-4ad0-8326-b8d1b6667c8c
<![CDATA[Why‐Oh‐Why? Dark Brooders Reduce Injurious Pecking, Though Are Still Not Widely Used in Commercial Rearing of Layer Pullets]]> Sirovnik, J., Riber, A. B. Dark brooders, i.e., horizontal heating elements for chicks equipped with curtains, mimic some aspects of maternal care, such as the provision of heat and a dark area for chicks to rest. Thus, they can be considered as artificial passive replacements of a mother hen. Despite their advantages in animal welfare and the likely positive outcomes in production and economy, dark brooders are rarely used in commercial layer pullet facilities. The main positive effect on welfare is a reduction of injurious pecking during the rearing and laying periods, which results in improved feather cover and reduced skin injuries and mortality due to cannibalism. Other welfare benefits include improved rest in dark‐brooded chicks and reduced fearfulness at all ages tested (i.e., from 4 to 26 weeks). The impact on production and economy is seen in a reduction of the energy costs in the first weeks of life due to radiant heating, as well as improved total egg production and reduced floor egg laying. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature on the effects of dark brooders on injurious pecking and other welfare issues in layers, including speculations on the possible explanations for improved welfare. We also discuss the possible reasons for why dark brooders are not applied more commonly in commercial practice, including insufficient information on the economic aspects of using brooders and the lack of commercially available brooder options.

Research Sun, 01 May 2022 15:59:12 +0200 66237ba0-a9b3-4df8-b63a-d21888cf9852
<![CDATA[Opinion paper]]> Kuhla, B., Dewhurst, R. J., Dijkstra, J., et al. Research Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 f3d82d16-0083-4f6a-a5b0-74f5c9b95e90 <![CDATA[The effect of hides and parity on behavior of periparturient dairy cows at pasture]]> Jensen, M. B., Webb, L. E., Vaarst, M., Bokkers, E. A.M. Under natural conditions, most parturient cows seek visual cover or seclude themselves from the herd when calving becomes imminent. Studies on calving site selection of dairy cows housed indoors show that predominantly older and dominant cows calve in secluded areas. This study aimed to investigate whether cows distance themselves further from herd members under spacious outdoor conditions and whether artificial hides on a pasture motivate cows to seek visual isolation from the herd. One hundred eighty-two Danish Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 13 groups of 14 cows according to expected calving date. In 2 paddocks (each 75 × 150 m), 5 zones (75 m × 30 m) were defined; zone 0 contained the feeding and shade area, and zone 4 bordered an area with trees. Weekly and according to calving date, a group of 14 cows was moved either to a paddock that had 12 hides distributed evenly throughout zones 1 to 4 (7 groups) or to a paddock without hides (6 groups). The hides were wooden structures (3.3 m long × 1.0 m wide × 1.2 m high) that the cows could hide behind. One hundred seven cows calved within 14 d of having been moved to the paddock, and 82 of these (38 primiparous and 44 multiparous), and their calves, were included in the study. From 3 h before until 3 h after calving, the location, posture, and behavior of cows were recorded continuously from video recordings. In addition, location, posture, and behavior of the calves were recorded for the first 3 h after birth. Continuous variables were analyzed by linear mixed effects models, whereas binary data were analyzed using mixed effects logistic regression. The presence of hides did not affect selection of calving location in the paddock, but more primiparous than multiparous cows calved in zone 4; that is, furthest away from the feeding area. Before calving, primiparous cows were more likely to be positioned in zone 4 and less likely to approach and contact herd members. After calving, primiparous cows and their calves tended to be more likely to be positioned in zone 4. The more cows present in the paddock, the less likely the cows were to isolate (i.e., be further than 30 m away from any other cow) at the time of calving. In addition, the more cows in the paddock when a calf was born, the less time these calves spent in a lying posture. The results show that primiparous cows move further away from herd members at calving than multiparous cows and suggest that primiparous cows prefer to isolate themselves through distance rather than seeking artificial cover. Contrary to expectation, the hides did not make more cows select a calving site away from the feeding area.

Research Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 63109ad7-89bc-4d18-aaf9-9b93b68eeeda
<![CDATA[Effect of age and dietary crude protein level on nitrogen excretion in dairy heifers]]> Johansen, M., Madsen, P. A., Brask-Pedersen, D. N., Lund, P. Research Sat, 01 Oct 2022 15:59:12 +0200 ec53a0fb-c192-4a81-8fe5-c6d94948ecb2 <![CDATA[Comparison of claw horn disruption lesions in four dairy herds using two different trimming techniques]]> Capion, N., Cannings, E. S., Krogh, M. A. Research Thu, 01 Sep 2022 15:59:12 +0200 dda38045-cd69-4f2a-a3f4-f79ad04d222b <![CDATA[Robuste grise med funktionelle ingredienser i foderet - slutrapport]]> Engelsmann, M. C. N., Nielsen, T. S., Nørgaard, J. V. Commissioned Tue, 06 Sep 2022 15:59:12 +0200 8683b142-284d-4e2f-b800-fb39570362ae <![CDATA[Towards re-identification for long-term tracking of group housed pigs]]> Wang, M., Larsen, M. L.V., Liu, D., Winters, J. F.M., Rault, J. L., Norton, T. Automatic monitoring tools can be useful for assessing the health and welfare status of animals. Specifically, a computer-vision-based tracking tool could be helpful to remotely and automatically monitoring the behaviour of individual animals. However, animals housed in partly covered pens present a particular challenge for animal tracking due to the possibility for animals to disappear from and reappear in the field of view (FOV). The aim of this study was to develop a tracking method for weaner pigs housed in partly covered pens, with the particular aim to re-identify individuals when they reappear in the FOV. In this study a one-shot tracker in which the detection and re-identification (re-ID) branches were jointly trained was adopted for tracking pigs. Three associations based on re-ID features and intersection over union (IoU) were used for matching the correct ID, especially re-identifying individuals reappearing in the FOV. Two sets of short videos were selected to test the model, with a first set of two short videos (mean ± SD: 1m50s ± 20) and a second set of three short videos (mean ± SD: 10m08s ± 3m52s). The model reached the performance of 91.41% and 88.33% in MOTA and IDF1 on the first set of videos, and 81.17% in mean tracking percentage per individual on the second set. The test on one long video (from the same pen, length: 85 m) achieved a tracking percentage of 16.78% per individual. The suggested method improved automatic individual behaviour analysis in complex environments where animals can leave the FOV.

Research Sat, 01 Oct 2022 15:59:12 +0200 7445dea3-91e4-4e03-a2dc-7d3b4d7d949a
<![CDATA[Forskellig praksis for nødslagtning]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 4e8396d3-c1d5-4f4e-9eba-b86751dbce18 <![CDATA[Can unsupervised learning methods applied to milk recording big data provide new insights into dairy cow health?]]> Franceschini, S., Grelet, C., Leblois, J., et al. Research Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 a084b5ab-52bc-4164-8ed4-6937c54a4539 <![CDATA[Virkning af forskellig mælkefodringsmanagement på kalves velfærd – Endelig afrapportering]]> Jensen, M. B., Otten, N. Commissioned Thu, 25 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 f8d5bcbf-50ac-4a1d-bc0c-cb569ae79e20 <![CDATA[Prediction of nitrogen excretion from data on dairy cows fed a wide range of diets compiled in an intercontinental database]]> Bougouin, A., Hristov, A., Dijkstra, J., et al. Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle contributes to nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching. Measurement of manure N outputs on dairy farms is laborious, expensive, and impractical at large scales; therefore, models are needed to predict N excreted in urine and feces. Building robust prediction models requires extensive data from animals under different management systems worldwide. Thus, the study objectives were (1) to collate an international database of N excretion in feces and urine based on individual lactating dairy cow data from different continents; (2) to determine the suitability of key variables for predicting fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretion; and (3) to develop robust and reliable N excretion prediction models based on individual data from lactating dairy cows consuming various diets. A raw data set was created based on 5,483 individual cow observations, with 5,420 fecal N excretion and 3,621 urine N excretion measurements collected from 162 in vivo experiments conducted by 22 research institutes mostly located in Europe (n = 14) and North America (n = 5). A sequential approach was taken in developing models with increasing complexity by incrementally adding variables that had a significant individual effect on fecal, urinary, or total manure N excretion. Nitrogen excretion was predicted by fitting linear mixed models including experiment as a random effect. Simple models requiring dry matter intake (DMI) or N intake performed better for predicting fecal N excretion than simple models using diet nutrient composition or milk performance parameters. Simple models based on N intake performed better for urinary and total manure N excretion than those based on DMI, but simple models using milk urea N (MUN) and N intake performed even better for urinary N excretion. The full model predicting fecal N excretion had similar performance to simple models based on DMI but included several independent variables (DMI, diet crude protein content, diet neutral detergent fiber content, milk protein), depending on the location, and had root mean square prediction errors as a fraction of the observed mean values of 19.1% for intercontinental, 19.8% for European, and 17.7% for North American data sets. Complex total manure N excretion models based on N intake and MUN led to prediction errors of about 13.0% to 14.0%, which were comparable to models based on N intake alone. Intercepts and slopes of variables in optimal prediction equations developed on intercontinental, European, and North American bases differed from each other, and therefore region-specific models are preferred to predict N excretion. In conclusion, region-specific models that include information on DMI or N intake and MUN are required for good prediction of fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretion. In absence of intake data, region-specific complex equations using easily and routinely measured variables to predict fecal, urinary, or total manure N excretion may be used, but these equations have lower performance than equations based on intake.

Research Thu, 01 Sep 2022 15:59:12 +0200 d12d4f31-c5c8-44c6-885b-a82c63f0578d
<![CDATA[Pilot scale production of Hermetia illucens (L.) larvae and frass using former foodstuffs]]> Gligorescu, A., Macavei, L. I., Larsen, . B. F., et al. Research Sat, 01 Oct 2022 15:59:12 +0200 d5db5519-e248-4bd9-b1b9-9e77014ebde9 <![CDATA[Positive Selection and Adaptive Introgression of Haplotypes from Bos indicus Improve the Modern Bos taurus Cattle]]> Zhang, Q., Schönherz, A. A., Lund, M. S., Guldbrandtsen, B. Complex evolutionary processes, such as positive selection and introgression can be characterized by in-depth assessment of sequence variation on a whole-genome scale. Here, we demonstrate the combined effects of positive selection and adaptive introgression on genomes, resulting in observed hotspots of runs of homozygosity (ROH) haplotypes on the modern bovine (Bos taurus) genome. We first confirm that these observed ROH hotspot haplotypes are results of positive selection. The haplotypes under selection, including genes of biological interest, such as PLAG1, KIT, CYP19A1 and TSHB, were known to be associated with productive traits in modern Bos taurus cattle breeds. Among the haplotypes under selection, we demonstrate that the CYP19A1 haplotype under selection was associated with milk yield, a trait under strong recent selection, demonstrating a likely cause of the selective sweep. We further deduce that selection on haplotypes containing KIT variants affecting coat color occurred approximately 250 generations ago. The study on the genealogies and phylogenies of these haplotypes identifies that the introgression events of the RERE and REG3G haplotypes happened from Bos indicus to Bos taurus. With the aid of sequencing data and evolutionary analyses, we here report introgression events in the formation of the current bovine genome.

Research Wed, 01 Jun 2022 15:59:12 +0200 2d97feb0-0936-4248-891b-2de08cdd3f2d
<![CDATA[Hay provision affects 24-h performance of normal and abnormal oral behaviors in individually housed dairy calves]]> Downey, B. C., Jensen, M. B., Tucker, C. B. Dairy calves often perform abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) including tongue rolling and nonnutritive oral manipulation (NNOM) when opportunities to perform feeding behaviors are restricted. Many US dairy farms limit access to milk, a well-studied risk factor for ARBs. However, farms also commonly do not feed forage to young calves, and the motor patterns of oral ARBs resemble those necessary for acquiring and chewing solid feed. Our objective was to assess how access to hay from birth influenced time engaged in normal and abnormal oral behaviors across 24 h. Holstein heifer calves were housed individually on sand bedding and fed ad libitum water and grain (control, n = 11) or given additional access to hay (hay, n = 11) from birth. Calves were fed 5.7 to 8.4 L/d (step-up) of milk replacer via a teat. At the start of step-down weaning (50 ± 1 d), all calves were given access to a total mixed ration. Feed and water intake were measured daily. Oral behaviors (eating, ruminating, sucking milk, drinking water, panting, grooming, tongue flicking, tongue rolling, and NNOM) were recorded by direct observation at wk 2, 4, 6, and 8 using 1–0 sampling at 1-min intervals for 24 h. Grain, hay, and water intake increased over time in the preweaning period. One polydipsic calf regularly consumed >10 L of water/d. During weaning, hay calves tended to consume increasingly more total mixed ration, significantly more water, and less grain than control calves. Access to hay led to more observations spent eating solid feed (7% vs. 5%, mean percentage of intervals) and ruminating (24% vs. 16%) during the preweaning period compared with calves fed only grain, though control calves appeared to ruminate in absence of forage to re-chew. Rumination occurred, to a large extent, overnight. Hay calves also spent less time self-grooming (12% vs. 14%), tongue flicking (14% vs. 18%), and performing NNOM (17% vs. 21%) than control calves. Although NNOM peaked around milk feedings, all 3 behaviors were performed throughout the day. Tongue rolling was rare across treatments, as was panting, which occurred most frequently around 1400 h. There were no behavioral differences during weaning (wk 8). Overall, we found that hay provision affected most oral behaviors that calves perform; it promoted natural feeding behaviors and reduced abnormal ones, suggesting hay should be provided. We also found that calves performed other behaviors, including polydipsia, repetitive grooming, and apparent sham rumination, that may suggest a degree of abnormality in these behaviors that has not been previously identified. These results highlight the importance of considering all oral behaviors to better understand calf welfare.

Research Sun, 01 May 2022 15:59:12 +0200 54d3b443-29af-42a2-9567-b92a92320249
<![CDATA[Renewable adsorbents from the solid residue of sewage sludge hydrothermal liquefaction for wastewater treatment]]> Saner, A., Carvalho, P. N., Catalano, J., Anastasakis, K. Solid residue from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of nutrient rich feedstock presents a promising source to recover valuable nutrients, such as phosphorus, in the solid form. The present work shows for the first time the potential of utilizing the waste residue remaining after nutrients extraction from HTL of sewage sludge, as renewable adsorbents. A parametric study was undertaken to investigate the influence of chemical activation conditions (temperature, residence time, activation agent loading, washing after activation) on raw and partially demineralized HTL solids. Kinetic and equilibrium adsorption investigation was undertaken for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. For comparison purposes, a commercial activated charcoal (AC) was used. Demineralization was found to have a significant influence in the adsorption capacity of the resultant adsorbents. Three adsorbents were found to follow the Langmuir adsorption model, while the acid washed demineralized adsorbent had higher adsorption capacity than AC and was found to follow the Freundlich adsorption model. The superior performance of the acid washed demineralized adsorbent was verified from the kinetic study where all adsorbents were found to best fit the pseudo-second order model. Adsorption capacities for MB at equilibrium were 367.1, 332.3, 297.4 and 87.6 mg/g, for acid washed demineralized adsorbent, AC, demineralized adsorbent, and raw adsorbent, respectively. Finally, the most promising adsorbents were assessed for their adsorption capacity to remove pharmaceuticals present in a real wastewater treatment effluent. Results indicated ultimate concentration for all targeted compounds below the detection limits for acid washed demineralized adsorbent, AC and demineralized adsorbent. Future implementation of HTL technology in wastewater treatment facilities, will not only provide an efficient way to valorize sewage sludge into bio-crude and nutrients, but can also enhance technology integration by providing the precursors for renewable adsorbents needed in tertiary treatment of wastewater.

Research Thu, 01 Sep 2022 15:59:12 +0200 9b324d23-86b4-4875-bf21-e9f139493254
<![CDATA[Vurdering af forhold, der kan påvirke minkproduktion: Foder]]> Møller, S. H. Commissioned Thu, 18 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 17a0c6f2-46a8-4835-b12e-78b0c2588407 <![CDATA[Systemer af relevans for vurdering af dyrevelfærden hos store græssere i de kommende naturnationalparker – vidensyntese]]> Henriksen, B. I. F., Christensen, J. W., Jensen, M. B., Thomsen, P. T., Sørensen, J. T. Commissioned Thu, 18 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 016e1665-dc27-434c-9f42-846394a9283f <![CDATA[Endnu en negativ effekt af halthed]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 f187bd9c-9ff5-4fbd-b1bf-0e9a600d42a6 <![CDATA[Pæne ben = sunde klove]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 5cc87dba-250f-4ea5-9166-3051fd0eb866 <![CDATA[Én ulykke kommer sjældent alene!]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 fafd54de-af88-4909-9d8b-2c472cce2333 <![CDATA[Varmestress skader den ufødte kalv]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 fc16e31b-e79f-4a01-a90d-036bed961a9c <![CDATA[Undgå skader på klovene]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 c0dcca71-0e6d-4ac0-83ee-5a1f29a3c093 <![CDATA[Amphibian cell lines]]> Strand, J., Callesen, H., Pertoldi, C., Purup, S. Research Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 dd14b57c-08c5-4245-8de8-415b169b6ab7 <![CDATA[Caecal microbiota composition of experimental inbred MHC-B lines infected with IBV differs according to genetics and vaccination]]> Borey, M., Bed’Hom, B., Bruneau, N., et al. Interactions between the gut microbiota and the immune system may be involved in vaccine and infection responses. In the present study, we studied the interactions between caecal microbiota composition and parameters describing the immune response in six experimental inbred chicken lines harboring different MHC haplotypes. Animals were challenge-infected with the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and half of them were previously vaccinated against this pathogen. We explored to what extent the gut microbiota composition and the genetic line could be related to the immune response, evaluated through flow cytometry. To do so, we characterized the caecal bacterial communities with a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach performed one week after the IBV infectious challenge. We observed significant effects of both the vaccination and the genetic line on the microbiota after the challenge infection with IBV, with a lower bacterial richness in vaccinated chickens. We also observed dissimilar caecal community profiles among the different lines, and between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals. The effect of vaccination was similar in all the lines, with a reduced abundance of OTU from the Ruminococcacea UCG-014 and Faecalibacterium genera, and an increased abundance of OTU from the Eisenbergiella genus. The main association between the caecal microbiota and the immune phenotypes involved TCRϒδ expression on TCRϒδ+ T cells. This phenotype was negatively associated with OTU from the Escherichia-Shigella genus that were also less abundant in the lines with the highest responses to the vaccine. We proved that the caecal microbiota composition is associated with the IBV vaccine response level in inbred chicken lines, and that the TCRϒδ+ T cells (judged by TCRϒδ expression) may be an important component involved in this interaction, especially with bacteria from the Escherichia-Shigella genus. We hypothesized that bacteria from the Escherichia-Shigella genus increased the systemic level of bacterial lipid antigens, which subsequently mitigated poultry γδ T cells.

Research Thu, 01 Dec 2022 15:59:12 +0100 ce97b6a9-21d2-4948-a2c4-dc9c739d75ba
<![CDATA[Nutritional values of forage-legume-based silages and protein concentrates for growing pigs]]> Renaudeau, D., Jensen, S. K., Ambye-Jensen, M., et al. In organic pig production systems, one of the main challenges is to meet the demand for resources rich in protein. Among the resources available, temperate green plants, such as forage legumes, are potential sources of energy and protein. The aim of the study was to determine the nutritional value of silages (S) from the whole plant of lucerne (L) and red clover (R) and protein pastes (PPs) obtained from L and R leaves. In a first trial, 30 pigs were used in a factorial design to determine the total tract digestibility (TTD) of dietary nutrients and energy in five dietary treatments. The control group was fed a control diet (C1). The lucerne silage (LS) and red clover silage (RS) groups were fed a 78%:22% mixture (on a DM basis) of the C1 diet and LS or RS. The lucerne protein paste (LPP) and the red clover protein paste (RPP) groups were fed an 81%:19% mixture (on a DM basis) of the C1 diet and LPP or RPP. In the second trial, five pigs were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design to evaluate the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AAs) in the four legume products. The control diet (C2) was formulated with casein as the sole protein source. The LS and RS groups were fed an 85%:15% mixture (on a DM basis) of the C2 diet and LS or RS. The LPP and RPP groups were fed an 80%:20% mixture (on a DM basis) of the C2 diet and LPP or RPP. Regardless of the plant species, silages obtained from L and R leaves contained less AA and more fibre than protein pastes. While the fresh forages contained the same percentage of protein N in total N (63.6%), lucerne lost more protein N during ensiling than red clover (-75.5 vs -33.8%). The calculated TTD coefficient of energy was higher in silages than in protein pastes and lower in R than in L products (72.8, 71.5, 67.7, and 61.3 for LS, RS, LPP and RPP, respectively). The SID of total essential AA was higher in LPP than in RPP (87.2 vs 79.2%) whereas it was lower in LS than in RS (33.2 vs 56.8%). The lower SID values in silages were explained by the protein degradation during the ensiling process and a high proportion of AA linked to the NDF fraction. The results of the present study show that protein pastes obtained from lucerne and red clover are valuable protein sources for pig. In contrast, legume silages have to be considered as an energy source rather than a protein source.

Research Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 332c1f0e-4cbc-43af-a25d-367abd0d8b9c
<![CDATA[Performance and mineral status of laying hens fed diets with different levels of glyphosate]]> Carlsvig, A. D., Foldager, L., Steenfeldt, S., Højberg, O., Nørskov, N., Sørensen, M. T. 20), 20 mg glyphosate/kg as IPA (IPA20) and 200 mg glyphosate/kg as IPA (IPA200). The EU-defined maximum residue level (MRL) of glyphosate for several feed crops is 20 mg/kg. The layers were housed in 32 enriched cages for 27 weeks. Glyphosate levels in the diets (mg/kg feed) were analysed to 0.03 for CON, 19.3 for GM20, 18.5 for IPA20 and 191.7 for IPA200. Using preselected contrasts, there were no clear effects of diet glyphosate amendment on average egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and rate of lay, while post hoc contrasts suggested that diet glyphosate concentrations above 20 mg/kg may reduce rate of lay by 0.9%-point. Mineral levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in blood as well as indicators of welfare measured by plumage scoring and by a novel object test were not significantly affected by treatment. Glyphosate levels in blood serum (µg/L) were 0.29 for CON, 22.5 for GM20, 25.0 for IPA20 and 128.9 for IPA200. Glyphosate levels in egg yolk and egg white (ng/g) were respectively 0.26 and 0.01 for CON, 20.1 and 0.20 for GM20, 21.4 and 0.25 for IPA20 and 223.3 and 3.09 for IPA200. Glyphosate concentrations in blood serum, egg yolk and egg white reflected diet concentrations. The glyphosate degradation product, AMPA, followed the same trend as glyphosate in all analysed compartments. In conclusion, there were no clear adverse effects of glyphosate-amended diets on performance, welfare indicators and mineral status of Lohmann LSL-Lite layers even at a level approximately 10x higher than the MRL for soybeans and other common feed crops (20 mg glyphosate per kg feed). However, post hoc contrasts suggested that diet glyphosate concentrations above 20 mg/kg may reduce rate of lay by 0.9%-point. Moreover, the layers exposed down to 0.03 mg of glyphosate per kg feed produced eggs with residues of this pesticide.]]> Research Sat, 01 Oct 2022 15:59:12 +0200 a8e566cb-f599-4e76-941b-fb5114f486f2 <![CDATA[A review of The Ridden Horse pain Ethogram and its potential to improve ridden horse welfare]]> Ladewig, J., McLean, A. N., Wilkins, C. L., Fenner, K., Christensen, J. W., McGreevy, P. D. Across the globe, the welfare of sport horses is of growing concern, prompting the International Equestrian Federation to state that at all times the welfare of the horse must be paramount. Expressions of discomfort or pain are nevertheless frequently overlooked or misunderstood, and warrant the development of objective welfare assessment methods for the ridden horse which can be applied during training and competitions. The recent “Ridden Horse pain Ethogram” (RHpE) (Dyson et al., 2018, J. Vet. Behav. 23, 47-57) seeks to identify pain in horses based on their behavior while ridden. The ethogram includes 24 behaviors and it has been proposed that the presence of 8 or more of the 24 behaviors is likely to reflect musculoskeletal pain. Behavior-based pain scales hold promise as a means to improve the welfare of the ridden horse. That said, it is important to recognize that, as a pain or lameness diagnostic tool, the RHpE is still in its infancy because, as we point out in this review, there are a number of aspects that require further qualification before it can be applied with confidence. It is therefore proposed here that the work achieved so far by the RHpE can be of value for observers to recognize that these behaviors may indicate pain but as a diagnostic tool, the RHpE requires further development. Our evaluation of the RHpE is that it is impaired by some flaws in the definitions and that an interdisciplinary approach with substantial ethological input will greatly improve its accuracy and utility. In addition, there is a risk in applying an accumulative clinical threshold when all of the items within an ethogram are assigned equal weighting without an evidence-base for such weighting. Apart from pain and lameness, many other aspects of riding can contribute to suboptimal welfare in the ridden horse and result in the same behaviors highlighted in the RHpE. While recognizing that the RHpE may help to rule in or out problems on the differential diagnosis list and that it has not been proposed as a standalone technique, we see a risk in it being adopted without further development. Public acceptance of future use of horses for elite sports likely depends on whether the international and national riding federations can provide credible, objective evidence that horse welfare is truly paramount at all times.

Research Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 bc88816d-0533-4a5b-bbdc-9f6c018dd03a
<![CDATA[Fluorometric determination of isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC; 1; NADP <sup>+</sup> dependent) in ruminant milk]]> Larsen, T., Rupp, R. ., Friggens, N. C., Pires, J. A. A. Research Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 2f37aaa7-c894-4405-affe-e944534c56f2 <![CDATA[Effect of reduced dietary protein on productivity and plasma, urine, and milk metabolites in organic sows during winter conditions]]> Johannsen, J. C., Eskildsen, M., Kongsted, A. G., Theil, P. K.
In total, 20 sows (Topigs Norsvin; TN70) were included in the experiment, lasting from d30 of gestation until weaning at d49 of lactation under outdoor conditions during winter. During gestation, sows were fed one of two isoenergetic diets containing 88 g SID CP pr. kg DM (Control) and 72 g SID CP pr. kg DM (Low protein), corresponding to 16% and 31% below the current recommendation for indoor sows. In lactation, all sows were fed a standard diet containing 125 g SID CP pr. kg DM.

Sow performance traits were not affected by dietary protein level during gestation. An interaction indicated that sows fed the control diet had 23% and 11% higher urinary urea concentrations at d60 and d100 of gestation, respectively, compared with the low protein diet. During lactation, the milk yield of sows fed low protein in gestation increased more than that of control sows (P < 0.05). Concurrently, the litter gain of the low protein sows was improved, and their litters were heavier at d49 compared to control sows (276 kg vs. 238 kg; P < 0.001).

In conclusion, organic outdoor sows benefitted from reduced dietary protein during gestation in winter conditions, as indicated by urinary urea concentration, milk yield, and litter gain.]]>
Research Thu, 01 Sep 2022 15:59:12 +0200 8d258e45-b6e6-4f60-90e4-3f5b48f6b89a
<![CDATA[Investigating the effects of two weaning methods and two genetic hybrids on play behavior in weaner pigs (Sus scrofa)]]> Amorim Franchi, G., Larsen, M. L. V., Winters, J. F. M., Jensen, M. B., Pedersen, L. J. Research Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 a430331e-e27f-4d29-be7a-df6326ed927d <![CDATA[Faglig vurdering af tilstrækkelig og anbefalet datakvalitet til opførelse af 3-NOP i den nationale emissionsopgørelse]]> Nielsen, O., Lund, P. Commissioned Thu, 21 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 dc4a648f-78e5-417e-9008-c9bd2bbfb6a6 <![CDATA[Krav til indvendig højde ved transport af smågrise]]> Herskin, M. S., Kobek-Kjeldager, C., Kaiser, M. Ø., et al. Commissioned Thu, 14 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 54d9f075-cd66-488f-ac50-6e5fc34d9bc6 <![CDATA[Commercial layer hybrids kept under organic conditions]]> Wurtz, K. E., Thodberg, K., Berenjian, A., Foldager, L., Tahamtani, F. M., Riber, A. B. Research Thu, 01 Sep 2022 15:59:12 +0200 f930536a-7794-4473-bdbf-e2ed9a4c7466 <![CDATA[Gut microbiota activity in chickens from two genetic lines and with outdoor-preferring, moderate-preferring, and indoor-preferring ranging profiles]]> Sztandarski, P., Marchewka, J., Konieczka, P., et al. Research Sat, 01 Oct 2022 15:59:12 +0200 960ea8d1-4a5b-4389-b0af-7faf93478ea4 <![CDATA[Role of Short Chain Fatty Acids to Counteract Inflammatory Stress and Mucus Production in Human Intestinal HT29-MTX-E12 Cells]]> Giromini, C., Baldi, A., Rebucci, R. ., et al. Research Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 bb5768df-13da-4da5-b42f-0eb42da6254a <![CDATA[Physiology and nutrition of late gestating and transition sows]]> Theil, P. K., Farmer, C., Feyera, T. The physiology during late gestation and the transition period to lactation changes dramatically in the sow, especially during the latter period. Understanding the physiological processes and how they change dynamically as the sow approaches farrowing, nest building, giving birth to piglets, and producing colostrum is important because these processes greatly affect sow productivity. Glucose originating from assimilated starch accounts for the majority of dietary energy, and around farrowing, various organs and peripheral tissues compete for plasma glucose, which may become depleted. Indeed, physical activity increases shortly prior to farrowing, leading to glucose use by muscles. Approximately ½ to 1 d later, glucose is also needed for uterine contractions to expel the piglets and for the mammary gland to produce lactose and fat for colostrum. At farrowing, the sow appears to prioritize glucose to the mammary gland above the uterus, whereby insufficient dietary energy may compromise the farrowing process. At this time, energy metabolism in the uterus shifts dramatically from relying mainly on the oxidation of glucogenic energy substrates (primarily glucose) to ketogenic energy supplied from triglycerides. The rapid growth of mammary tissue occurs in the last third of gestation, and it accelerates as the sow approaches farrowing. In the last 1 to 2 wk prepartum, some fat may be produced in the mammary glands and stored to be secreted in either colostrum or transient milk. During the first 6 h after the onset of farrowing, the uptake of glucose and lactate by the mammary glands roughly doubles. Lactate is supplying approximately 15% of the glucogenic carbon taken up by the mammary glands and originates from the strong uterine contractions. Thereafter, the mammary uptake of glucose and lactate declines, which suggests that the amount of colostrum secreted starts to decrease at that time. Optimal nutrition of sows during late gestation and the transition period should focus on mammary development, farrowing performance, and colostrum production. The birth weight of piglets seems to be only slightly responsive to maternal nutrition in gilts; on the other hand, sows will counterbalance insufficient feed or nutrient intake by increasing mobilization of their body reserves. Ensuring sufficient energy to sows around farrowing is crucial and may be achieved via adequate feed supply, at least three daily meals, high dietary fiber content, and extra supplementation of energy.

Research Wed, 01 Jun 2022 15:59:12 +0200 4a765520-06a2-4b65-b9fb-6310f08514a9
<![CDATA[Shelter use by horses during summer in relation to weather conditions and horsefly (Tabanidae) prevalence]]> Christensen, J. W., Andersen, A. G., Skovbo, K. N., Skovgård, H. Research Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 9b07a97f-8231-4767-8275-c87c5be668c9 <![CDATA[Vurdering af, om to ræve er sølvræve (vulpes vulpes) eller tilhører en anden art]]> Møller, S. H. Commissioned Mon, 20 Jun 2022 15:59:12 +0200 b5501ae1-1d60-47cc-8b8c-4a163a023ed5 <![CDATA[Assessment of whether a limit value of 5 mg iodine per kg of complete feed ration (including 12 % water) will fulfil the requirements of ruminants for iodine]]> Nielsen, M. O., Rasmussen, M. D., Chasse, E. Commissioned Mon, 20 Jun 2022 15:59:12 +0200 27dfb6d8-d131-413f-bfbb-34871d61b7f1 <![CDATA[Improving fermentation of <i>Saccharina latissima</i> and <i>Alaria esculenta</i> silages with additives for preserving biomass and antioxidants]]> Yen, Y., Weisbjerg, M. R., Rautenberger, R., Fečkaninová, A., Novoa-Garrido, M. Rapid deterioration of harvested macroalgal biomass is a challenge for macroalgal industry and can be overcome with the inexpensive ensiling preservation. To improve silage quality, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta biomass was subjected to ensiling conditions following a 2 × 4 factorial design, with 2 prewilting treatments (no-prewilting and prewilted to 300 g DM kg−1 fresh biomass) and 4 additive treatments (no additive, formic acid, single and two species of Lactobacillus inoculant), and ensiled for 3 or 12 months at 15 °C. Acetate was the main fermentation product in these seaweed silages. Prewilting reduced the acetate, mannitol, and NH3 content in silages. In S. latissima silages without additives, prewilting led to less acidification (pH = 5.7). Also, prewilting caused protein and phlorotannin degradation. When treated with formic acid, the silage pH was below 4 regardless of the biomass’s moisture content. The use of Lactobacillus spp. inoculants was essential for lactate production in seaweed silages, and it significantly lowered silage pH in S. latissima and prewilted A. esculenta compared to silages with no additives. A high level of the phlorotannin content was preserved (> 90%) in the 3-month A. esculenta silages without prewilting. However, major reduction of antioxidant activity was observed in 12-month silages in both seaweed species. In conclusion, ensiling is a viable method for preserving Alaria and Saccharina biomass. Prewilting restricted silage fermentation, and both formic acid and bacterial additives facilitated silage acidification. However, there was no clear benefit of these treatments in preserving the antioxidant activity.

Research Tue, 01 Feb 2022 15:59:12 +0100 d1eba461-ece0-446f-ac13-416d18c90931
<![CDATA[Determination of the Optimal Level of Dietary Zinc for Newly Weaned Pigs]]> Hansen, S., Nørskov, N., Nørgaard, J. V., Woyengo, T. A., Poulsen, H. D., Nielsen, T. S. that the EU-legislated maximum dietary zinc concentration (150 mg zinc/kg diet) will increase the
risk of zinc deficiency after weaning. Zinc deficiency includes symptoms such as impaired growth
and increased risk of diarrhoea. However, a high dietary zinc concentration has an antimicrobial
effect on the bacteria and increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance. The findings of this study
show that the dietary zinc level had a quadratic effect on growth, with a turning point at an
approximately 1400 mg zinc per kg diet. The risk of diarrhoea increased up to 60% for pigs that had
a blood zinc concentration which decreased after weaning. Maintaining the blood zinc
concentration seven days after weaning required up to 1121 mg zinc per kg diet. There was no
evidence for an antimicrobial effect when feeding pigs a diet with up to 1601 mg zinc per kg.]]>
Research Wed, 01 Jun 2022 15:59:12 +0200 7be170b3-d79b-48f7-9598-d37e05089981
<![CDATA[Porcine in vitro fermentation characteristics of canola co-products in neutral and acidic fermentation medium pH]]> Lee, J. W., Wang, S., Seefeldt, T., et al. An in vitro study was conducted to determine effects of reducing pH of porcine in vitro fermentation medium on compositions of glucosinolate degradation products and porcine in vitro fermentation characteristics for solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) and cold-pressed canola cake (CPCC). Two canola co-products were subjected to porcine in vitro fermentation for 72 h. Accumulated gas production during microbial fermentation was recorded and modeled to estimate kinetics of gas production. Glucosinolate degradation products after microbial fermentation were determined and fermentation medium pH after incubation was recorded. Total and individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations per unit weight of dry matter (DM) of feedstuffs were determined. On DM basis, SECM and CPCC contained 6.15 and 11.1 µmol/g of glucosinolates, respectively. Goitrin concentration for CPCC was lower (P < 0.05) than that for SECM. Isothiocyanate and indole-3-acetonitrile concentrations for CPCC were lower (P < 0.05) than those for SECM, whereas thiocyanate concentration for CPCC was greater (P < 0.05) than that for SECM. A reduction in fermentation medium pH from 6.2 to 5.2 increased (P < 0.05) goitrin and indole-3-acetonitrile concentrations and decreased (P < 0.05) isothiocyanates concentration for SECM, but did not affect concentration of these 2 glucosinolate degradation products for CPCC. Fermentation medium pH after in vitro fermentation for SECM tended to be greater (P = 0.081) than that for CPCC. Canola co-product type and fermentation medium pH did not interact on gas production parameters. However, a reduction in fermentation medium pH from 6.2 to 5.2 resulted in increased (P < 0.05) lag time and reduced (P < 0.05) fractional rate of degradation and total gas production. Canola co-product type and fermentation medium pH did not interact on total or individual VFA production per gram of DM of feedstuff fermented. However, reducing fermentation medium pH from 6.2 to 5.2 increased (P < 0.05) total VFA and acetate productions, and tended to reduce (P = 0.083) branched-chain VFA production SECM and CPCC. In conclusion, a reduction in fermentation medium pH from 6.2 to 5.2 resulted in increased production of goitrin and indole-3-acetonitriles from SECM-derived glucosinolates, but did not affect production of thiocyanate from SECM-derived glucosinolates. Glucosinolates in CPCC were less affected by the fermentation medium pH used in the current study. It appears that there are other factors other than pH that affect the degradation of canola-derived glucosinolates by microorganisms from hindgut of pigs.

Research Tue, 01 Feb 2022 15:59:12 +0100 7f90ddc1-b5cb-4773-b973-35cc162d5302
<![CDATA[A field trial on the effect of cross-fostering on performance, clinical health and antibiotic usage during the suckling period of pigs]]> Nielsen, C. L., Krogh, M. A., Sørensen, J. T., Kongsted, H. Research Mon, 01 Aug 2022 15:59:12 +0200 4641d2bc-0a4d-4c2e-b8d2-51c188959ab9 <![CDATA[Gummigulve belaster klovene mindre]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Sun, 01 May 2022 15:59:12 +0200 c028ecc7-6a66-42d4-abbd-1e070b52c498 <![CDATA[Hjælp til svagfødte kalve]]> Thomsen, P. T. Communication Sun, 01 May 2022 15:59:12 +0200 3d2a7e51-b0fa-46a5-b6c6-cc5b255f3672 <![CDATA[Growth performance, bone mineralization, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microbial composition of multi-enzyme-supplemented low-nutrient diets for growing-finishing pigs]]> Hong, J., Jlali, M., Cozannet, P., et al. A study evaluated the effects of adding multi-enzyme mixture to diets deficient in net energy (NE), standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids (AA), standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, and Ca on growth performance, bone mineralization, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microbial composition of grow-finish pigs. A total of 300 pigs (initial body weight [BW] = 29.2 kg) were housed by sex and BW in 45 pens of 7 or 6 pigs and fed 5 diets in a randomized complete block design. Diets were positive control (PC), and negative control 1 (NC1) or negative control 2 (NC2) without or with multi-enzyme mixture. The multi-enzyme mixture supplied at least 1,800, 1,244, 6,600, and 1,000 units of xylanase, β -glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, and phytase per kilogram of diet, respectively. The PC was adequate in all nutrients. The NC1 diet had lower content NE, SID AA, STTD P, and Ca than PC diet by about 7%, 7%, 32%, and 13%, respectively. The NC2 diet had lower NE, SID AA, STTD P, and Ca than PC diet by 7%, 7%, 50%, and 22%, respectively. The diets were fed in four phases based on BW: Phase 1: 29-45 kg, Phase 2: 45-70 kg, Phase 3: 70-90 kg, and Phase 4: 90-120 kg. Nutrient digestibility, bone mineralization, and fecal microbial composition were determined at the end of Phase 1. Pigs fed PC diet had greater (P < 0.05) overall G:F than those fed NC1 diet or NC2 diet. Multi-enzyme mixture increased (P < 0.05) overall G:F, but the G:F of the multi-enzyme mixture-supplemented diets did not reach (P < 0.05) that of PC diet. Multi-enzyme mixture tended to increase (P = 0.08) femur breaking strength. Multi-enzyme mixture increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD of GE for the NC2 diet, but unaffected the ATTD of GE for the NC1 diet. Multi-enzyme mixture decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of the Cyanobacteria and increased (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Butyricicoccus in feces. Thus, the NE, SID AA, STTD P, and Ca could be lowered by about 7%, 7%, 49%, and 22%, respectively, in multi-enzyme mixture-supplemented diets without negative effects on bone mineralization of grow-finish pigs. However, multi-enzyme mixture supplementation may not fully restore G:F of the grow-finish pigs fed diets that have lower NE and SID AA contents than recommended by 7%. Since an increase in content of Butyricicoccus in intestine is associated with improved gut health, addition of the multi-enzyme mixture in diets for pigs can additionally improve their gut health.

Research Sun, 01 May 2022 15:59:12 +0200 c1d5a89a-c0e9-47d8-aa90-808bfbc59e7e
<![CDATA[Changes in the Metagenome-Encoded CAZymes of the Rumen Microbiome Are Linked to Feed-Induced Reductions in Methane Emission From Holstein Cows]]> Barrett, K., Lange, L., Børsting, C. F., Olijhoek, D., Lund, P., Meyer, A. S. Research Sun, 01 May 2022 15:59:12 +0200 5242773b-e471-451d-8376-3177112d98af <![CDATA[Combining pressing and alkaline extraction to increase protein yield from Ulva fenestrata biomass]]> Juul, L., Steinhagen, S., Bruhn, A., Jensen, S. K., Undeland, I., Dalsgaard, T. K. Many seaweed species have a high production potential and attract interest as future protein sources. A high fiber and ash content, however, demand extraction of the protein to improve its digestibility and protein utilization in food or feed. This study explores three different approaches for protein extraction from Ulva fenestrata in order to maximize the protein extraction yield. Soluble protein was recovered either by mechanical pressing or by homogenization and osmotic shock of the biomass followed by alkaline extraction. The soluble protein was then concentrated by isoelectric precipitation. A combined procedure was carried out by pressing the biomass and following subjecting the residual pulp fraction to homogenization, osmotic shock and alkaline extraction. The three methods were ranked as follows with respect to protein extraction yield (as % of biomass protein); the combined method (23.9 ± 0.3%)> the alkaline extraction (6.8 ± 0.2%)> mechanical pressing (5.0 ± 0.2%). The significant increase when combining the methods was ascribed to a high precipitation yield after alkaline extraction of the pulp, hypothesized to be due to a reduced conductivity of the alkali-soluble protein fraction when derived from pulp rather than whole biomass.

Research Fri, 01 Jul 2022 15:59:12 +0200 635e6f54-b73b-4607-b623-c1ff5ba4f921